The quality, quantity, time loss, overflow, spillage and leaks of the product are important items to be considered during the physical bunker replenishment processes. If we generalize overflows, spills and leaks as spills, such conditions are the primary source of oil pollution from ships. As a result of experience, it has been determined that most bunker overflows, spills and leaks are caused by human error. All refueling operations must be carefully planned and finalized in accordance with MARPOL regulations. Especially pollution caused by Fuel Oil is harmful and difficult to clean.
The staff on duty should not be involved in any other work and should not leave the post during topping-off. This is especially important in terms of avoiding conflicts between fuel and cargo personnel during simultaneous loading of the bunker and cargo on the ship. Spills are often caused by staff dealing with another job.
Companies must request that all refueling operations be carried out in a controlled manner, in accordance with the ship’s Safety Management System procedures. They must ensure that operational risks are reviewed and controls are made to minimize them. In the event of a spill, imperative and urgent applications should be known and responded immediately.
The following items should be taken into account when determining the procedures to be followed during the bunker replenishment operation:
• Determine if there is enough space for the volume of the product to be loaded.
• Determination of the maximum loading volume for all tanks.
• Checking the valve settings of the bunker system.
• Determination of start of, Bulk and Topping-off loading rates.
• Taking special precautions when loading double bottom tanks.
• Bunker tank ventilation arrangements.
• Internal tank overflow arrangements.
• The measuring system is operational and accurate.
• Monitoring of alarm settings against overflow.
• Communicating with the terminal about when refueling can be done.
• Communicating with the bunker company about the replenishment application, quality and quantity controls before starting the replenishment.
• What methods to use if the fuel contains hydrogen sulfide.
• Test methods for detecting the presence of hydrocarbon or hydrogen sulfide vapors.
• Methods of controlling the temperature of products during loading
• Communication methods during the replenishment process.
• Personnel necessary for a safe operation.
• Monitoring the operation and checking its compliance with the agreed procedures.
• Control of overflow tanks.
• Safeguard measures and availability of cleaning equipment.
• Procedures should be implemented using a checklist after publication.
Refueling requires careful planning. It requires the coordination and cooperation of all parties involved, from the ordering stage until the refueling is complete. During bunkering, the bunkerist and its business partners will respond immediately to problems caused by ship or fuel / oil tanker personnel and / or weather conditions, local authority, in general, to the disruptions caused by physical factors, professional, legal and ethical factors. If there is any follow-up of the defect, it makes official sanctions related to the defective party.